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See also: Constructivism
In 1909 the Italian Futurists published their manifesto in the Parisian newspaper, Le Figaro. Their ideas filtered to Russia and the artist Malevich and his followers, one of whom was Lissitzsky, responded with ideas of their own. Lissitzsky studied engineering and architecture from 1909-1914. After being a painter, illustrator and designer of Soviet flags, he taught with Malevich at Vitebsk and at art workshops in Moscow. He arrived in Berlin in 1921 and set up exhibitions of art by the post-revolutionary avant-garde, working also as a writer and designer for international magazines. His achievements acted like a campaign to forge links between artists in Russia and in the West, between Weimar's De Stijl and Constructivism. His own Proun paintings, Proun being an acronyrn signifying "for the new art", express his vision of a world of physics inspired by modern spiritualist thought. They were produced at the same time as Victory Over the Sun, which suggests similar concerns. His work was intended to be a catalyst to encourage "the broad aim of forming a classless society". His publications include Die Kunstismen, with Hans Arp, an issue of Merz magazine, with Schwitters, other books and independent contributions.
- From "The A-Z of Art"
El Lissitzky Images
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